There are three major aspects to finance. The first is looking at data and analyzing it to assess the probability of an outcome in the future: GDP growth, a stock price going up or down, a portfolio of properties losing value, a credit card debt being defaulted on.
Basel IV sounds like the sequel to a bad action movie franchise, and in a way, it is. The action is the wild west of bankers trying to skirt rules to pad profits—a move that creates really bad externalities like the Great Recession of 2007-2009.
The capital structure dominates much of finance and financial theory. The firm, being a fictional entity used to produce products that will provide profits, needs to be structured in a way that rewards initial investors according to their inputs as well as their appetites for risk. The capital structure is designed to do that.
The financial infrastructure in America and, to a certain extent, in Europe, is so complex and sophisticated that its benefits are often lost on people outside of the industry (and, for that matter, plenty within it).
A common practice in international finance is hedging currency exposure, and it can be an incredibly important part of both the corporate financial and asset management worlds.